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Island Geography

Island Geography

Geography of Northern Cyprus

Northern Cyprus, part of the third-largest island in the Mediterranean, offers a diverse and captivating landscape. Encompassing an area of 9,251 square kilometers, Cyprus is split between the Republic of Cyprus and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC). The TRNC, surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea, boasts a rich history and a unique geographical profile.

Key Geographical Facts

  • Location: Northern Cyprus lies south of Turkey (75 km), west of Syria (105 km), and north of Egypt (380 km).
  • Ancient Origins: The island’s history dates back approximately 200 million years, shaped by continental shifts and geological formations.


Northern Cyprus features a variety of natural landscapes that change with the seasons. The dominant vegetation includes olive, carob, pine, and cypress trees, along with lush green scrub. The region’s mountainous terrain, formed by the rising seabed, includes ancient dolomite and marble rocks, particularly in the Troodos and Kyrenia mountain ranges.

  • Mountains: The Troodos and Kyrenia mountains are the island’s most prominent ranges, featuring peaks over 100 million years old.
  • Plains: The Mesaoria Plain, which formed about a million years ago, is now a central feature of the island, contributing to its current topography.

Coast and Coastal Landscapes

Northern Cyprus is famous for its stunning coastline, which includes:

  • Bays: Morphou Bay and Famagusta Bay.
  • Capes: Cape Apostolos Andreas (endpoint of the Karpaz Peninsula), Cape Kormakitis, Cape Zeytin, and Cape Kasa.
  • Beaches: The coast features a mix of rocky shores and long, golden sandy beaches. Famagusta’s beaches are renowned for their crystal-clear waters, attracting thousands of tourists annually.

The Karpaz Peninsula, a national reserve with unspoiled nature, is home to some of the island’s most picturesque beaches. The coastline also includes numerous harbors, bays, and grottoes, with many secluded beaches offering privacy. The well-developed coastal infrastructure makes Northern Cyprus a prime location for real estate investment, especially for properties near the sea that promise attractive rental income. Additionally, the island’s beaches are considered more environmentally friendly compared to many other Mediterranean destinations.

Plains and Hills

Northern Cyprus features unique mountain landscapes and extensive plains, supporting diverse flora and fauna. Key geographical highlights include:

  • Pentadactylos Mountain: Known as “five-fingered” (Beşparmak Dağı in Turkish), it reaches an elevation of 1,000 meters.
  • Kyparissovouno (Selvili Tepe): The highest peak in the TRNC, standing at 1,024 meters.

The Mesaoria Plain, or Mesarya in Turkish, is the agricultural heartland of Northern Cyprus, with vast areas for crop cultivation and cattle grazing. The island’s cliffs provide natural protection for the beaches, while the Kyrenia mountain range acts as a barrier against sea winds, creating a distinctive microclimate.


Northern Cyprus, with its diverse geography ranging from ancient mountains to pristine beaches and fertile plains, offers a unique blend of natural beauty and historical richness. Whether you are looking to invest in real estate, explore the natural landscapes, or enjoy the Mediterranean climate, Northern Cyprus provides a captivating setting for all.

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